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Microsmatic fish are represented by species in which the well developed visual system provides most of the behavioural responses in comparison with the less developed chemosensory system (Devitsina & Malyukina, 1977). Visually guided diurnal or twilight predators, like Northern pike, Esox lucius, and other Esocidae, on the one hand, and visually guided planktoneaters, like Black Sea black-striped pipefish, Syngnathus nigrolineatus, and other Syngnathidae, on the second hand, form this group of fish (e.g., Doroshenko, 2008). In general, the chemosensory system of microsmatic fish provides first of all their reproductive behaviour, spatial migration, partially anti-predator behaviour and is weak or indifferent in providing feeding responses.

Data for microsmatic fish are given by many authors (Hara, 1975; Devitsina, 1977; Devitsina & Malyukina, 1977; Doroshenko, 1981, 2008).

Pike & Musky


According to data received by Devitsyna & Malyukina (1977) in the electrophysiological experiments, the olfactory system of pike, E. lucius, responds only to conspecific sexual pheromones (gonad extracts), but does not respond to conspecific odors, pure water and feeding substances like fish blood or tissue extracts.





In the behavioural experiments with pike, Nilsson & Brönmark (1999) have found that the chemical cues from the foraging conspecifics render only minor effects upon the foraging individuals.

In feeding behaviour, musky, E. masquinongy, use mainly vision and lateral sensory systems (New et al., 2001).

Pike larvae decrease the frequency of their attacks on zooplankters and show other anti-predator responses to chemical cues of Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis (Lehtiniemi, 2005; Lehtiniemi et al., 2005). Chemical cues of perch (water from under adult predators, 15 cm length, fed on pike larvae until experiments) affect alone, but chemical and visual cues offered together are more effective.

Furthermore, it is shown that pike are attracted by alarm pheromone of fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas (Mathis et al., 1995; Chivers et al., 1996; indirect data by Wisenden & Thiel, 2001). In addition, pike demonstrate distinct foraging responses to artificial hypoxanthin-3(N)-oxide (Mathis et al., 1995) identified as an active component of ostariophysan fish alarm pheromones.

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Category: Olfaction & Gustation | Views: 2340 | Added by: nickyurchenko | Date: 2012-07-05

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