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Northern pike, Esox lucius, are attracted by alarm pheromone of fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, deposited normally in the undamaged fish skin (Mathis et al., 1995; Chivers et al., 1996; undirect data by Wisenden & Thiel, 2001). According to Mathis et al. (1995), pike are also attracted by an artificial hypoxanthin-3(N)-oxyde identified as an active component of the Ostariophysi alarm pheromones.

In addition to pike in the winter experiments (Wisenden & Thiel, 2001), other predatory fish active in cold season such as walleye, Stizostedion vitreum, largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens, might be attracted by the skin extract of fathead minnow, P. promelas. Other potential predators in the experimental locality (Wisenden & Thiel, 2001) such as black bullhead catfish, Ameiurus melas, brown bullhead, A. nebulosus, and yellow bullhead, A. natalis, are inactive in the winter season.

It is shown directly that piscivorous (adult) largemouth bass, M. salmoides, are attracted by alarm pheromone of finescale dace, Phoxinus neogaeus (Brown et al., 2001). Likewise, adult yellow perch, P. flavescens, are attracted by conspecific alarm pheromone (Hurvey & Brown, 2004) while juvenile (planktivorous) bass and perch demonstrate anti-predator behaviour to the same cue.

According to Mathis et al. (1995), skin extract of fathead minnow, P. promelas, attracts also 6 species of predaceous diving beetles (Dytiscidae) like Colymbetes sculptilis and more.

Basic References

Brown G.E., LeBlanc V.J., Porter L.E. 2001. Ontogenetic changes in the response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides, Centrarchidae, Perciformes) to heterospecific alarm pheromones. Ethology 107, 401-414

Chivers D.P., Brown G.E., Smith R.J.F. 1996. The evolution of chemical alarm signals: attracting predators benefits alarm signal senders. The American Naturalist 148, 649-659

Harvey M.C., Brown G.E. 2004. Dine or dash?: Ontogenetic shift in the response of yellow perch to conspecific alarm cues. Environmental Biology of Fishes 70, 345-352

Mathis A., Chivers D.P., Smith R.J.F. 1995. Chemical alarm signals: predator detterents or predator attractants? American Naturalist 145, 994-1005

Wisenden B.D., Thiel T.A. 2001. Field verification of predator attraction to minnow alarm substance. Journal of Chemical Ecology 28, 417-422

Category: Attractants | Views: 1025 | Added by: nickyurchenko | Date: 2013-06-30

As typical microsmatic visually guided fish, pike, Esox lucius, and other representatives of Esox genus do not respond to food odors (Devitsyna & Malyukina, 1977).

Pike larvae decrease the frequency of attacks on zooplankton prey and show other anti-predator responses on chemical cues of Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis (Lehtiniemi, 2005; Lehtiniemi et al., 2005). Chemical cues of perch (water from under adult predators, 15 cm length, fed on pike larvae until experiments) affect alone, but chemical and visual cues offered together are more effective.

Among pheromones, pike are respond to the conspecific sexual pheromone (Devitsyna & Malyukina, 1977).



Furthermore, it is shown that pike are attracted by alarm pheromone of fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas (Mathis et al., 1995; Chivers et al., 1996; indirect data by Wisenden & Thiel, 2001). In addition, pike demonstrate distinct foraging responses to artificial hypoxanthin-3(N)-oxide (Mathis et al., 1995) identified as an active component of ostariophysan fish alarm pheromones.




Meantime, Pro-Cure Bait Scents Co., located in the USA, offers several attractants for pike, musky and pickerel under the mark Pro-Cure.

The exact composition of this attractants is unknown. As feeding attractant (with food extracts, amino acids and related chemicals), it cannot work. Nothing is known whether pheromones are included.

Basic References

Chivers D.P., Brown G.E., Smith R.J.F. 1996. The evolution of chemical alarm signals: attracting predators benefits alarm signal senders. The American Naturalist 148, 649-659

Devitsyna G.V., Malyukina G.A. 1977. On the functional organization of the olfactory organ in macro- and microsmatic fishes. Journal of Ichthyology 17, 493-502

Lehtiniemi M. 2005. Swim or hide: predator cues cause species specific reactions in young fish larvae. Journal of Fish Biology 66, 1285–1299

Lehtiniemi M., Engström-Öst J., Viitasalo M. 2005. Turbidity decreases anti-predator behaviour in pike larvae (Esox lucius). Environmental Biology of Fishes 37, 1-8

Mathis A., Chivers D.P., Smith R.J.F. 1995. Chemical alarm signals: predator detterents or predator attractants? The American Naturalist 145, 994-1005

Wisenden B.D., Thiel T.A. 2001. Field verification of predator attraction to minnow alarm substance. Journal of Chemical Ecology 28, 417-422

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Category: Attractants | Views: 1930 | Added by: nickyurchenko | Date: 2012-08-01

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