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Design patterns with simple postopercular dark spots are incorrect

Attractive visual spots play an important role in defensive, feeding, agonistic, courtship, parental and other visually guided behavioural responses in fish (for review, see Price et al., 2008) as well in many other animals. Now to study the influence of spots on these responses (starting with the first techniques: see Rowland, 1979), more perfect dummies, fishinig lures, computer images and live fish with manipulated coloration are chiefly used.

Interestingly, in many cases modern fishing lures are more perfect than models used in scientfic research.

Coss (1979) has conducted laboratory experiments with early fry of jewel fish, Hemichromis bimaculatus, and artificial models of head of adults equipped with symmetric and asymmetric spots. It is shown that models with two horizontal spots induce the most intensive fright responses of fry than any others. According to Blest (1957), pair horizontally arranged crosses, plain spots and eye-spots induce fright responses in birds. It is shown in experiments with naïve chicks, Gallus gallus domesticus, that any asymmetry in size, shape and color of pair stimuli affects their effectiveness (Forsman & Herrström, 2004).

The effectiveness of spots as amimetic stimuli is detemined by common mechanisms of visual perception. So the foregoing preferences for specially arranged spots is valid in context of other behavioural responses.

Figure 1. Yo-Zuri 3D Minnows (read text)

In fishing, there are numerous deviations from the foregoing ethologically grounded design patterns. For example, Yo-zuri Company uses design patterns with one postopercular dark spot for wobblers 3D Minnow and other lures (Fig.1). Really, many herring, such as Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, have typically one dark spot bihind opercle. Atlantic thread herring, Opisthonema oglinum, and other herring can have, in additon, lateral spots. However, it does not mean that colorations of wobblers and live models must be matched. Cast your attention that postopercular spot form with an "actual” well marked eye an asymmetric bilateral pattern (Fig. 2). In the light of the saying above, it is clear that similar design patterns must be considered as incorrect.

Figure 2. Asymmetric eye-spots (read text)

Basic References

Blest A.D. 1957. The function of eyespot patterns in the Lepidoptera. Behaviour 11, 209-256

Coss G.R. 1979. Delayed plasticity of an instinct: Recognition and avoidance of 2 facing eyes by the jewel fish. Developmental Psychobiology 12, 335-345

Forsman A., Herrström J. 2004. Asymmetry in size, shape, and color impairs the protective value of conspicuous color patterns. Behavioral Ecology 15, 141-147

Price A.C., Weadick C.J., Shim J., Rodd F.H. 2008. Pigments, patterns, and fish behavior. Zebrafish 5, 297-307

Rowland W.J. 1979. Some methods of making realistic fish dummies for ethological research. Behavior Research Methods & Instrumemation 6, 564-566

Category: Lures | Views: 788 | Added by: nickyurchenko | Tags: amimetic stimuli, Yo-zuri, eye-spots, four spots, design patterns, wobblers, 3D Minnow, bilateral symmetry | Rating: 0.0/0

   

   

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