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Attractive visual spots play an important role in defensive, feeding, agonistic, courtship, parental and other visually guided behavioural responses in fish (for review, see Price et al., 2008) as well in many other animals. Now to study the influence of spots on these responses (starting with the first techniques: see Rowland, 1979), more perfect dummies, fishinig lures, computer images and live fish with manipulated coloration are chiefly used.

Interestingly, in many cases modern fishing lures are much more perfect than models used in scientfic research.

Coss (1979) has conducted laboratory experiments with early fry of jewel fish, Hemichromis bimaculatus, and artificial models of head of adults equipped with symmetric and asymmetric spots. It is shown that models with two horizontal spots (Fig.1) induce the most intensive fright responses of fry than any others. According to Blest (1957), pair horizontally arranged crosses, spots and eye-spots induce fright responses in birds. It is shown in experiments with naïve chicks, Gallus gallus domesticus, that any asymmetry in size, shape and color of pair stimuli affects their effectiveness (Forsman & Herrström, 2004).

Fig.1 (read text)

The effectiveness of spots as amimetic stimuli is detemined by common mechanisms of visual perception. So the foregoing preferences for specially arranged spots is valid in context of other behavioural responses.

As shown in experiments with fry of jewel fish, three and four spots are bilaterally symmetric but less effective than two horizontal spots (Coss, 1979). It may mean that fry must spend more time to recognize the more complicated stimuli and, finally, to make the corresponding decisions.

Fig.2 (read text)

In fishing, there are numerous deviations from the foregoing ethologically grounded design patterns. For example, Yakima Bait Company uses so called "frog” pattern, FR, with three, four or five yellow eye-spots (Fig.2) in coloration of Triple Teazers, Freak Spoons and other lures. In the light of the saying above, it is clear that this design pattern must be considered as incorrect.

Basic References

Blest A.D. 1957. The function of eyespot patterns in the Lepidoptera. Behaviour 11, 209-256

Coss G.R. 1979. Delayed plasticity of an instinct: Recognition and avoidance of 2 facing eyes by the jewel fish. Developmental Psychobiology 12, 335-345

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Category: Lures | Views: 654 | Added by: nickyurchenko | Date: 2012-08-18

Perch, Perca fluviatilis, are chiefly overtake-and-catch predators (like yellow perch, P. flavescens: Nursall, 1973). So, perch that pursue the lures cannot see any details in their front coloration.

The main objective of these tests was to verify the effectiveness of spinning lures with blades that had backside red spots.

Spinning lures of two types, Mepps Aglia #1 with large red spots (7 mm diameter) on the backside of silver blades (RB) (printed closer to the axis of rotation) and the same lures with plain blades (PB), were compared in the field.

At each estimated locality of perch, 20 presentations (cast and retrieving) of lures were made: 5 with RB, 5 with PB, 5 with RB and 5 with PB. Then an experimentator moved to the other locality, where 20 presentations of the compared lures were made in the reverse order. In total, 180 lure presentatations per 1 day were made, 38 perch were included in the calculation (see Table, null and equal results for RB and PB lures were canceled).

For comparison, the number of landed perch were group per each 10 lure presentations (140 lure presentations were included in the caculation).


Mepps Aglia #1
silver blade without spots

Mepps Aglia #1
silver blade with backside red spots
3
4
0
5
2
3
1
4
0
2
3
5
2
4

Total number of landed perch
11

Total number of landed perch
27

Mean number
per 10 lure presentations
1,57

Mean number
per 10 lure presentations
3,86

Lures had the same cylindrical brass bodies with four circle grooves filled with the red paint

Perch were released. Some landed and released Northern pike, Esox lucius, were no included in the calculation.

It seems that lures with spotted blades are much more effective (on an average, 3,86 perch per 10 lure presentations) than lures with plain blades (1,57 perch). Really, an estimation of mean difference with the assistance of Student’s t-test confirms this hypothesis (n1 = 7, n2 = 7, k =12, tfact > tstandard, P < 0,01): perch prefer lures with spotted blades.

The same results were obtained within several  sessions.

Spinners with backside red spots are also effective for asp, Aspius aspius, chub, Leuciscus cephalus, ide, L. idus, and sabrefish, Pelecus cultratus, which usually pursue live prey and artificial lures like perch.

Basic References

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Category: Lures | Views: 575 | Added by: nickyurchenko | Date: 2012-08-05

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