generally known that fermentation of cereal brans improves their numtrient
value, in particular through increasing protein content (e.g., Hassan et al.,
2008; Silveira & Badiale-Furlong,
2009). In the field
experiments described below, we have tested the attractiveness of fermented and
unfermented white brans for cyprinid fish.
for human consumption was fermented with 0,2 % of dry baker yeast (Saccharomyces
cerevisiae). Fermentation of moistured bran was carried out at 25o C
within 2 days in plastic bags with the leaking lids.
fermented and moistured unfermented brans were mixed with the pure dry grey
clay in proportion 1:1 or 1:2, depending on the clay quality. Both mixes were
rolled into the balls (3 cm diameter) and dried in air within 12 hours. Then
dry balls (that had practically the same color) were strung on the lines ended
by the small button like stoppers, with marks to distinguish them.
with the two compared balls were tied (25 cm between centers of the balls) to
bar placed above the water
with the help of two racks. Narrow channels (40-50 cm width) in the shallows between macrophytes
(usually water lily, Nuphar lutea,
and pondweeds Potamogeton spp.) were
selected. Balls went down to the depth of about 5 cm, to attract roach and other top
dwelling fish, or about 30 cm, to attract crucian and other bottom dwelling
the surface tests, mainly juvenile roach, Rutilus
rutilus, rudd, Scardinius
erythropthalmus, as well as juvenile and adult river bleak, Alburnus alburnus, were attracted. In
lentic waters, lake bleak, Leucaspius delineatus, occured instead of
river bleak. In the bottom tests, mainly juvenile crucian, Carassius carassius, tench, Tinca
tinca, as well as juvenile and adult bitterling, Rhodeus amarus, (in areas with the sandy bottom) were
After immersion into the water, clay balls with fermented and unfermented wheat
brans were beginning to crumble with
bran particles and attract fish. The fish were biting and destroying the balls.
So, the first touch of fish to one of the balls and the destruction of the most
attractive ball first were used as criteria for statistical estimations.
following results were obtained in the first session. Fish first touched 12
balls with the fermented wheat bran versus 3 balls with unfermented bran of 15
pairs of both kind balls offered (sign test, n = 15, z (+) =12, p < 0,05). Similarly, fish first destroyed 13
balls with the fermented bran (sign test, n
= 15, z (+) =13, p < 0,01) showing in this way the attractiveness (both
olfactory and gustatory) of fermented bran. The same preferences were observed
in other four sessions.
E.G., Award Alkareem A.M., Mustafa A.M.I. 2008. Effect of fermentation and
particle size of wheat bran on the antinutritional factors and bread quality. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 7, 521-526
Badiale-Furlong E. 2009. Sperathe
effects of solid-state fermentation in the functional properties of defatted
rice bran and wheat bran. Brazilian
Archives of Boilogy and Technology 52, 1555-1562
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analyses of 21 species of dried aquatic plants
indicate that they contain the sufficient quantities of nutrients to be
considered as livestock feedstuffs (Linn et al., 1975). Although considerable
variations are among 21 species, 14 species contain more than 10% protein and all
species contain less than 30% crude fiber. Mixed aquatic plant species (approximately 50% Myriopbyllus, 30% Ceratopbyllum, 10% Potamogeton, 5% Vallisneria
and 5% unknown) have been ensiled with the organic acids (acetic, formic, propionic),
corn or alfalfa. After 47 days of fermentation the silages have had pH values
above 4.5 and lactic acid values below 0.4% of the dry matter. Acoording to
Linn et al. (1975), acid-treated aquatic plant and alfalfa silages are higher in crude protein, indicating
that acid additions decrease protein loss during fermentation.
To facilitate fish cultivation in
rural areas of the Neotropics, the potential of cosmopolitan and locally
available aquatic macrophytes from northern Colombia (Lemna minor, Spirodela
polyrhiza, Azolla filiculoides
and Eichhornia crassipes) as
alternative fish feed are studied by Cruz et al. (2011). Considering the importance
of fermentation in improving nutritional value of non-conventional feeds, fermentation
properties and effects of anaerobic fermentation on the nutritional quality of
the selected aquatic plants are evaluated. Although the fermentability
coefficients (FC) of the selected aquatic macrophytes reveal hardly fermentable
materials (FC < 35), the use of bacteria inoculants (Lactobacillus plantarum) and molasses (150 g kg-1)
results in good silage quality. Lactic acid fermentation positively affects the
nutritional quality of the selected plants, reducing the concentration of some
antinutritional substances (trypsin inhibitor, phytates, tannins and more) and
crude fibre content.
According to Cruz et al. (2011), an amino acid
profile of the raw macrophytes is sufficient to amino acid requirements of
tropical fish Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
niloticus) and pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus). The amino acid
profile is similar in the raw plants and represented by 5,30 to 6,28 g per 100 g
protein in lysine and 1,72 to 2,04 g per 100 g protein in methionine. In
addition, the tested aquatic macrophytes show to be rich in aspartic acid and
glutamic acid. However, the effects of lactic acid fermentation on the protein
content are conditional and strongly depend on the plant species. According to
Cruz et al. (2011), the crude protein in fermented Azolla and Eichhornia
decreases (due to slower acidification), but increases in fermented Lemna
and Spirodela (maybe
through an additional microbial synthesis).
macrophytes such as Elodea nuttalli, Vallisneria natans, Alterranthera philoxerides that are widely distributed in water
environments have been used as substrate of solid-state fermentation to produce
crude protein extraction (Xiao et al., 2009). The experimental results show
that the crude protein content of products with mixed strains fermentation is
higher than that with single-strain fermentation. The crude protein content in V. natans fermented with the mold
strain, Aspergillus niger, and yeast, Candida utilis, (taken in the ratio 1:1at 28o C for 72 hours) is highest
(39,88 %) among the fermented aquatic macrophytes examined in this study.
inoculants to ferment aquatic and terrestrial plants, fish intestinal bacteria
are widely used (e.g., Bairagi et al., 2004; Saha & Ray, 2011).
Molasses fermented, cow rumen content fermented and
yeast fermented water hyacinth (E.
crassipes) have been incorporated
into isonitrogenous and isocaloric test diets for fingerlings of Nile tilapia, O. niloticus, by El-Sayed Abdel-Fattah
(2003). In final sum, diets with molasses fermented water hyacinth have been
utilized more efficiently than diets with yeast fermented and cow rumen content
fermented water hyacinth, respectively. According to
Tham et al. (2013), addition of molasses and rice bran as an absorbent,
but not an inoculant in the form of fermented vegetable juice (Brassica campestris), improve the quality
of fermented water gyacinth as food.
A.., Sarkar Ghosh K., Sen S.K., Ray A.K. 2004. Evaluation
of nutritive value of Leucaena
leucocephala leaf meal inoculated with fish intestinal bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus circulans in formulated diets
for rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)
fingerlings. Aquaculture Research, 35, 436-446.
Cruz Y., Kijora C., Wedler E., Danier J., Schulz C.
2011. Fermentation properties and nutritional quality of selected aquatic
macrophytes as alternative fish feed in rural areas of the Neotropics. Livestock Research for Rural Development 23, article # 239
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