chironomid larvae are widely recognized as an important food for many fish and
cultured invertebrates, such as crustaceans (Armitage,
1995; Tidwell et al., 1997). This food, used in vivo, in frozen and in dry, is an excellent source of protein, lipid,
vitamins and minerals (e.g., Czeczuga & Gierasimow, 1973; De La Noűe & Choubert,
1985; Habib et al., 1997, Bogut et al., 2007, Kara, 2013). This food is characterized
by the relatively high protein content (up to 56%), the high digestibility (De La Noűe & Choubert, 1985) and the high energy
Crude protein, fat, water, ash, dry matter, essential
amino acids and fatty acids are analyzed from freshly collected Chironomus plumosus larvae in order to
evaluate their suitability as the components for farmed fish diet (Bogut et
al., 2007). Crude
protein content are 7,6 % and 55,7 % in fresh larvae and dry matter,
respectively, being adequate for growth needs of all freshwater fish sorts and
categories. Phenylalanine (2,76 % of dry weight), leucine (2,49 %)
and lysine (2,48 %) are most abandant among essential amino acids. In sum,
essential amino acids in C. plumosus
larvae are present in quantities adequate for feeding majority of omnivorous
and carnivorous freshwater fish species (Bogut et al., 2007).
The content of free amino acids
in larvae of C. annularius
is studied by Czeczuga &
Gierasimow (1973). Aspartic acid is found in the largest amounts, 6,17 g % of dry mass, the next are such amino
acids as glutamic acid (5,04 g %), leucine together
with isoleucine (4,86 %) and alanine (4,58 g %). Habib et al. (1997) have
studied 14 species of chironomid larvae, with the dominance of Chironomus javanus, grown in algal culture,
Chlorella vulgaris. Glutamic acid
(9,44 % of total acids), aspartic acid, glycine
and alanine are most abundant than other amino acids.
In C. plumosus,
crude fat content are 1,3 % and 9,7 % in fresh larvae and dry matter,
respectively, being energetically sufficient for all warm water living fish (Bogut
et al., 2007). The crude fat contains
26,12 % saturated, 30,42 % monounsaturated and 34.03 % polyunsaturated fatty
acids. In general, chironomid larvae contain more amounts of unsaturated fatty
acids (Habib et al.,
1997) that is needed for normal growth of freshwater fish and prawn fry.
P.D. 1995. Chironomidae as food. The Chironomidae: biology and ecology of
non-biting midges. Armitage P.D., Cranston P.S., Pinder L.C.V. (Editors.). Chapman
and Hall, London,
Bogut I., Has-Schon E., Adamek Z., Rajković V., Galović
D. 2007. Chironomus
plumosus larvae as suitable nutrient for freshwater farmed
fish. Poljoprivreda 13, 159-162
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acid content in freshwater copepods (Eudiaptomus
zachariasi), cladocerans Daphnia
pulex and Ceriodaphnia sp. as
well as copepodites (Cyclops strenuus)
is studied by Dabrowski
& Rusiecki (1983).
Yet, the amino acid content in saltwater brine shrimp, Artemia salina, nauplii on hatching and during fasting is determined.
free amino acids in C. strenuus dry
matter are 1,43 % arginine, 0,22 % histidine, 0,20 % alanine, 0,15 % glutamic
acid and 0,11% lysine. Free arginine content decreases in the daphnids as they
increase in the size. The content of all free amino acids in fasting Artemia nauplii is lower than in the
freshwater zooplankters. The major free amino acids in nauplii are 0.55 %
proline, 0.41 % alanine, 0.34 % glycine and 0.37 % serine, respectively.
composition of Daphnia
other daphnids is studied by Holm & Walther
(1988). Non-polar amino acid alanine ((from 13,4 mol % to 20,3 mol %), basic
amino acids arginine (11,6 mol %) and lysine (10,2 mol %) as well as polar,
uncharged amino acid glycine (10,0 mol %) are most abundant in the plankton extract.
authors have demonstrated rapid leakage of amino acids from frozen daphnids
moisture content, crude protein level and amino acid profile of three
freshwater zooplankton (Moina micrura,
Diaphanosoma excisum, Brachionus calyciflorus) commonly used
for rearing fish larvae are analyzed by Ovie & Ovie (2006). The moisture
contents and crude protein levels are similar, as follows: M. micrura 89,0 % and 52,4 %; D.
excisum 89,3 % and 57,3 %; B.
calyciflorus 91,6 % and 50,3 %, respectively. The samples are represented
by 17 amino acids: nine essential and eight non-essential amino acids. The
dominant essential amino acids (per 16 g N) in M. micrura are lysine (10.73 g), arginine (8,17 g) and leucine (8,0
g); in D. excisum lysine (9,95 g),
leucine (8,0 g) and valine (6,23 g); in B.
calyciflorus leucine (8,95 g), lysine (8,64 g) and arginine (6,37 g). According
to Ovie & Ovie (2006), in all three species tested (M. micrura, D. excisum, B. calyciflorus), glutamine and aspartic
acid dominate the non-essential amino acid profile.
variations in the concentrations of 19 free amino acids in the whole body
homogenates of freshwater amphipod Gammarus
pseudolimnaeus are measured by Graney & Giesy (1986). The greatest
total concentrations of free amino acids, 226,9 and 286,4 nmol per mg dry
weight, are observed in April and May, with declining through summer months. The
pattern of relative concentrations of individual free amino acids in G. pseudolimnaeus is found to be similar
to that of other freshwater invertebrates. Alanine represents the most abundant
amino acid (16,2-22,4 %) throughout an entire year. Arginine and leucine
exhibit the next greatest abundances and comprised an average of 10,2 and 10,4 %
of the total free amino acid concentration, respectively.
Holm & Walther (1988) give seasonal variations in the
concentrations of free amino acids in D. longispina and other daphnids.
profile of amphipod Gammarus lacustris
in the beginning of autumn has the high level of alanine (22,6 mmol per ml of
homogenate) and ornithine (17,6 mmol) (Karanova & Andreev, 2010). The
amount of alanine and ornithine accounts for 39,8 % of the total pool of free
amino acids, taken together alanine, ornithine, lysine and leucine form 55% of
abdominal muscle, antennal gland, haemolymph, hepatopancreas and ovary of
freshwater Astacus leptodactylus are
analysed for free and protein-bound amino acids by van Marrewijk & Ravestein
(1974). Free amino acid content is highest in the abdominal muscle and lowest
in the haemolymph. The most abundant free amino acids are glycine, arginine and
alanine. Together they account for up to 38 mol % in the hepatopancreas and up
to 73 mol % in the abdominal muscle of the total amount. The content of free
amino acids in the hemolymph of three crayfish species, Astacus astacus, A.
leptodactylus and Ortonectes limosus,
is researched by Rogala et al. (1978), setting the differences in lysine and histidine
freshwater Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir
sinensis, and A. astacus
concentration of amino acids is less than in marine decapods (Camien et al.,
1951) (mitten crab is an invasive species that lives in freshwater but migrates
seawards to breed).<
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