of juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella have been raised
within 6 months on animal and vegetable foods (Kasumyan & Morsi, 1997). Carps conditionally named carnivorous have been grown on Chironomidae larvae, carps named vegetarian on duckweed and Romaine lettuce (Lactuca
sativa) leaves, respectively. After conditioning, carnivorous carps show preferences for
agar-agar pellets with the Chironomidae larvae extract (75 g w.w. per 1 liter),
vegetarian carps to pellets with the lettuce extract (75 g w.w.). According to Kasumyan & Morsi (1997), carps of both groups do
not change specific preferences for individual 21 amino acids and 4 classical
taste substances tested.
gustatory search images form in the memory of fish relatively quickly. In
common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Ivlev,
1977), fairly stable visual and gustatory search images in respect of
Chironomidae larvae and other natural foods form within 1-2 weeks.
1977. Experimental ecology of the feeding of fishes. Nukova Dumka Publishers,
A.O., Morsi A.M.K. 1997. Taste preferences of classical taste substances by juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae, Pisces), raised on animal and
vegetate foods. Proceedings of
the Russian Academy
of Sciences 357, 284-286
potentials of sugars and related compounds have been statistically estimated in
an olfactometer on the basis of exploratory and feeding behavior in oriental
weatherfish, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus
(Harada et al., 1994). Six monosaccharides, three disaccharides, six sugar
alcohols, six glycosides and two artificial sweeteners have been tested. Among
them, fructose, glycyrrhizin, aspartame and rebaudioside, especially the last, show
the higher attractivity. Using the
same technique, Harada et al. (1995) have studied the attractivity of the
foregoing sugars and related compounds for yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata, discovering that galactose, maltose and glycyrrhizin are highly
attractive for this fish.
Somewhat earlier, Rottiers &
Lemm (1985) have found that juvenile
walleyes, Stizostedion vitreum, are
attracted by sucrose solution in the Y-shaped olfactometer.
important to underline that olfactory responses of fish do not correlate with
their gustatory, first of all intraoral responses to the same substanses (Kasumyan
& Døving, 2003;
Hara, 2006). In carp, Cyprinus carpio,
for example, amino acids (alanine, valine and leucine) most attractive in the
olfactometer experiments (Saglio et al., 1990) are not matched with amino acids
(cysteine, proline, glutamic and aspartic acids) most attractive as ingredients
in the palatable agar-agar pellets (Kasumyan & Morsi, 1996; see also Wood & Azócar,
Sucrosa is an
indifferent gustatory stimulus for carp (Kasumyan & Morsi, 1996).
to Kasumyan & Døving (2003) and Isaeva (2007),
sucrosa as gustatory stimulus is also indifferent for many other cyprinid (Cyprinidae)
fish such as tench Tinca tinca, bitterling Rhodeus sericeus amarus, lake bleak Leucaspius delineatus, crucian Carassius carassius, goldfish Carassius auratus, chub Leuciscus
cephalus, European minnow Phoxinus
phoxinus and bream Abramis brama,
in the experiments with the agar-agar pellets. Sucrosa as gustatory stimulus is
only positive for roach Rurilus rutilus,
grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella as
well as for guppy Poecilia reticulata
& Døving, 2003)
which eat the most large amount of vegetable food.
to Chervova & Lapshin (2005), external parts of
the head in C. carpio (such as the
center of the upper lip) is less sensitive (3 orders of magnitude) to
saccharosa than to cysteine.
Chervova L.S., Lapshin D.N. 2005. The threshold sensitivity of
external chemoreceptor in carp Cyprinus carpio to amino acids and classical gustatory substances. Journal of Ichthyology 45, S307-S314
Hara T.J. 2006. Feeding behaviour in some teleosts is triggered
by single amino acids primarily through olfaction. Journal of Fish Biology 68, 810-825
Miyasaki T., Tamura Y. 1994. Attractivity of sugars and related compounds for the oriental
weatherfish Misgurnus anguillicaudatus.
Fisheries Science 60, 643-645
Miyasaki T., Tamura Y. 1995. Attraction of yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata for sugars and related compounds. Aquaculture Science 43, 51-55
2007. Taste preferences and taste behaviour of cyprinid fish. Moscow Lomonosov
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percid (Percidae) fish can be divided into the two groups depending on type of
their activity and sensory equipment. European perch,
Perca fluviatilis, American yellow
perch, Perca flavescens, and numerous
American darters (Etheostoma)
demonstrate the diurnal type of activity (first of all of the feeding
activity), are visually guided fish and, thus, may be included in the first
laboratory and natural conditions, both perches usually do not eat immobile as well as dead
food and demonstrate relatively weak responses to food odors or their absence. According
to Mirza et al. (2003), an aqueous brine shrimp (Artemia spp.) extract (5 g of frozen shrimp in 150 ml of distilled
water for 1 hour) induces searching movements in P. flavescens. Both perches, however, do not go practically into
the minnow traps baited with the animal lures (in contrast to cyprinid, cobitid and other fish).
aquarium, blinded P. fluviatilis may find
the pieces of earthworms using olfactory and gustatory systems (Wunder, 1927).
But convergence of perch with brown trout, Salmo
trutta, on sensory system utilization is incorrect.
species of euryhaline
Percarina, Azov percarina, P. maeotica, and common percarina, P. demidoffi, use vision in day when hunting for zooplankton and
lateral line system at night when hunting for preyfish (Kanaeva, 1956).
Winn (1962) have tested utilization of the senses in feeding behavior of johnny
darter, Etheostoma nigrum, using live
worms (Tubifex), dead worms and crushed worm solutions. It is shown that
darters prefer live worms and respond slightly to an olfactory stimulus. Daugherty
et al. (1976) have studied responses of six species of darters (E. gracile, E. spectabile, E. whipplei, E.
radiosum, E. collettei and E.
punctulatum) to visual and olfactory cues of worms. It is revealed that
olfactory cues (water from live Tubifex) alone are not sufficeint to stimulate
complete feeding behaviour in darters, both in clear or muddy waters.
darter, Etheostoma fonticola,
respond to live aquatic microinvertebrates and ignore immobile items (Shenck & Whiteside, 1977).
longperches of Percina genus are also
diurnally active and feed on live macroinvertebrates (Greenberg, 1991). Percina
are more mobile than Etheostoma and spent most time above the bottom.
group is formed by percids with the twilight or nocturnal type of feeding
activity with the well developed chemosensory and lateral line systems. Three
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