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Hygienic fermentation of cereal brans

Fermentation allows to improve significantly nutritional value of wheat, rye, rice, oat and other cereal brans expanding an area of their use in nutrition of human, in particular in baking industry, and animals. In our context, fermented baits and groundbaits are widely used in fishing. Here, we consider briefly some examples and per se practical recipes of wheat, rice and other cereal brans fermentation that will allow you to get the first glimpse of the state of affairs in this important area.

Unhygienic methods of cereal bran fermentation are not considered.

Proximate composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors (tannin, phytic acid) are determined in fermented (with the 0,2 % dry yeast plus 30 ppm ascorbic acid) wheat bran by Hassan et al. (2008). Fermentation of moistured wheat bran in an incubator at 30o C for 4 hours increases the percentage of crude fiber from 15,67 to 18,67; 15,67 to 18,00; 15,00 to 17,67 for coarse, medium and fine brans. At the same time, protein content is increased from 20,35 to 21,65; 18,36 to 20,79 and 21,07 to 22,40 for wheat bran with the foregoing particle size, respectively. Carbohydrates percentage increases from 45,09 to 47,40 in fermented coarse wheat bran. Both antinutritional factors (tannins and phytic acid) are found to decrease significantly in coarse, medium and fine wheat bran. Functional properties of cereal brans fermented by Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus sp. in the solid-state system are determined by Silveira & Badiale-Furlong (2009) with an aim to evaluate their application in food formulation. The defatted rice bran and wheat bran have been inoculated with the spores of the cultures and incubated at 30°C for zero, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Protein content, protein solubility, in-vitro digestibility, gelation and water holding capacity have been determined in bran with or without fermentation. Rhizopus sp. increases significantly the protein content (69,0 % and 56,0 % for the defatted rice bran and wheat bran, respectively), protein solubility (28,5 % and 36,2 %) as well as water holding capacity (11,4 % for wheat bran).

Other aspects of rice bran fermentation are considered in many papers (e.g., Oliveira et al., 2011; Kupski et al., 2012).

Oduguwa et al. (2008) have carried out experiments to evaluate the effect of fermentation on the composition of corn cob, rice bran and cowpea (Vigna sp.) husk to use them in composite rabbit feed formulations. The test ingredients have been moistened with the tap water and allowed to ferment naturally at room temperature during zero, 24 and 48 hours. The microorganisms associated with the fermenting materials are identified as Rhizopus oligosporus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, Rhodotorula, Geotrichum candidum, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. According to Odugawa et al. (2008), S. cerevisiae enhance the protein and fat contents in the fermented materials while R. oligosporus are able to degrade the fiber significantly.

Basic References

Hassan E.G., Award Alkareem A.M., Mustafa A.M.I. 2008. Effect of fermentation and particle size of wheat bran on the antinutritional factors and bread quality. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 7, 521-526

Kupski L., Cipolatti E., da Rocha M., Oliveira M.S., de Souza-Soares L.A., Badiale-Furlong E. 2012. Solid-state fermentation for the enrichment and extraction of proteins and antioxidant compounds in rice bran by Rhizopus oryzae. Brazilian Archives of Boilogy and Technology 55, 937-942

Oduguwa O.O., Edema M.O., Ayeni A.O. 2008. Physico-chemical and microbiological analyses of fermented corn cob, rice bran and cowpea husk for use in composite rabbit feed. Bioresource Technology 99, 1816-1820

Oliveira M.S., Feddern V., Kupski L., Cipolatti E.P., Badiale-Furlong E., de Souza-Soares L.A. 2011. Changes in lipid, fatty acids and phospholipids composition of whole rice bran after solid-state fungal fermentation. Bioresource Technology 102, 8335-8338

Silveira C.M., Badiale-Furlong E. 2009. Sperathe effects of solid-state fermentation in the functional properties of defatted rice bran and wheat bran. Brazilian Archives of Boilogy and Technology 52, 1555-1562

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