chironomid larvae are widely recognized as an important food for many fish and
cultured invertebrates, such as crustaceans (Armitage,
1995; Tidwell et al., 1997). This food, used in vivo, in frozen and in dry, is an excellent source of protein, lipid,
vitamins and minerals (e.g., Czeczuga & Gierasimow, 1973; De La Noűe & Choubert,
1985; Habib et al., 1997, Bogut et al., 2007, Kara, 2013). This food is characterized
by the relatively high protein content (up to 56%), the high digestibility (De La Noűe & Choubert, 1985) and the high energy
Crude protein, fat, water, ash, dry matter, essential
amino acids and fatty acids are analyzed from freshly collected Chironomus plumosus larvae in order to
evaluate their suitability as the components for farmed fish diet (Bogut et
al., 2007). Crude
protein content are 7,6 % and 55,7 % in fresh larvae and dry matter,
respectively, being adequate for growth needs of all freshwater fish sorts and
categories. Phenylalanine (2,76 % of dry weight), leucine (2,49 %)
and lysine (2,48 %) are most abandant among essential amino acids. In sum,
essential amino acids in C. plumosus
larvae are present in quantities adequate for feeding majority of omnivorous
and carnivorous freshwater fish species (Bogut et al., 2007).
The content of free amino acids
in larvae of C. annularius
is studied by Czeczuga &
Gierasimow (1973). Aspartic acid is found in the largest amounts, 6,17 g % of dry mass, the next are such amino
acids as glutamic acid (5,04 g %), leucine together
with isoleucine (4,86 %) and alanine (4,58 g %). Habib et al. (1997) have
studied 14 species of chironomid larvae, with the dominance of Chironomus javanus, grown in algal culture,
Chlorella vulgaris. Glutamic acid
(9,44 % of total acids), aspartic acid, glycine
and alanine are most abundant than other amino acids.
In C. plumosus,
crude fat content are 1,3 % and 9,7 % in fresh larvae and dry matter,
respectively, being energetically sufficient for all warm water living fish (Bogut
et al., 2007). The crude fat contains
26,12 % saturated, 30,42 % monounsaturated and 34.03 % polyunsaturated fatty
acids. In general, chironomid larvae contain more amounts of unsaturated fatty
acids (Habib et al.,
1997) that is needed for normal growth of freshwater fish and prawn fry.
P.D. 1995. Chironomidae as food. The Chironomidae: biology and ecology of
non-biting midges. Armitage P.D., Cranston P.S., Pinder L.C.V. (Editors.). Chapman
and Hall, London,
Bogut I., Has-Schon E., Adamek Z., Rajković V., Galović
D. 2007. Chironomus
plumosus larvae as suitable nutrient for freshwater farmed
fish. Poljoprivreda 13, 159-162
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acid content in freshwater copepods (Eudiaptomus
zachariasi), cladocerans Daphnia
pulex and Ceriodaphnia sp. as
well as copepodites (Cyclops strenuus)
is studied by Dabrowski
& Rusiecki (1983).
Yet, the amino acid content in saltwater brine shrimp, Artemia salina, nauplii on hatching and during fasting is determined.
free amino acids in C. strenuus dry
matter are 1,43 % arginine, 0,22 % histidine, 0,20 % alanine, 0,15 % glutamic
acid and 0,11% lysine. Free arginine content decreases in the daphnids as they
increase in the size. The content of all free amino acids in fasting Artemia nauplii is lower than in the
freshwater zooplankters. The major free amino acids in nauplii are 0.55 %
proline, 0.41 % alanine, 0.34 % glycine and 0.37 % serine, respectively.
composition of Daphnia
other daphnids is studied by Holm & Walther
(1988). Non-polar amino acid alanine ((from 13,4 mol % to 20,3 mol %), basic
amino acids arginine (11,6 mol %) and lysine (10,2 mol %) as well as polar,
uncharged amino acid glycine (10,0 mol %) are most abundant in the plankton extract.
authors have demonstrated rapid leakage of amino acids from frozen daphnids
moisture content, crude protein level and amino acid profile of three
freshwater zooplankton (Moina micrura,
Diaphanosoma excisum, Brachionus calyciflorus) commonly used
for rearing fish larvae are analyzed by Ovie & Ovie (2006). The moisture
contents and crude protein levels are similar, as follows: M. micrura 89,0 % and 52,4 %; D.
excisum 89,3 % and 57,3 %; B.
calyciflorus 91,6 % and 50,3 %, respectively. The samples are represented
by 17 amino acids: nine essential and eight non-essential amino acids. The
dominant essential amino acids (per 16 g N) in M. micrura are lysine (10.73 g), arginine (8,17 g) and leucine (8,0
g); in D. excisum lysine (9,95 g),
leucine (8,0 g) and valine (6,23 g); in B.
calyciflorus leucine (8,95 g), lysine (8,64 g) and arginine (6,37 g). According
to Ovie & Ovie (2006), in all three species tested (M. micrura, D. excisum, B. calyciflorus), glutamine and aspartic
acid dominate the non-essential amino acid profile.
variations in the concentrations of 19 free amino acids in the whole body
homogenates of freshwater amphipod Gammarus
pseudolimnaeus are measured by Graney & Giesy (1986). The greatest
total concentrations of free amino acids, 226,9 and 286,4 nmol per mg dry
weight, are observed in April and May, with declining through summer months. The
pattern of relative concentrations of individual free amino acids in G. pseudolimnaeus is found to be similar
to that of other freshwater invertebrates. Alanine represents the most abundant
amino acid (16,2-22,4 %) throughout an entire year. Arginine and leucine
exhibit the next greatest abundances and comprised an average of 10,2 and 10,4 %
of the total free amino acid concentration, respectively.
Holm & Walther (1988) give seasonal variations in the
concentrations of free amino acids in D. longispina and other daphnids.
profile of amphipod Gammarus lacustris
in the beginning of autumn has the high level of alanine (22,6 mmol per ml of
homogenate) and ornithine (17,6 mmol) (Karanova & Andreev, 2010). The
amount of alanine and ornithine accounts for 39,8 % of the total pool of free
amino acids, taken together alanine, ornithine, lysine and leucine form 55% of
abdominal muscle, antennal gland, haemolymph, hepatopancreas and ovary of
freshwater Astacus leptodactylus are
analysed for free and protein-bound amino acids by van Marrewijk & Ravestein
(1974). Free amino acid content is highest in the abdominal muscle and lowest
in the haemolymph. The most abundant free amino acids are glycine, arginine and
alanine. Together they account for up to 38 mol % in the hepatopancreas and up
to 73 mol % in the abdominal muscle of the total amount. The content of free
amino acids in the hemolymph of three crayfish species, Astacus astacus, A.
leptodactylus and Ortonectes limosus,
is researched by Rogala et al. (1978), setting the differences in lysine and histidine
freshwater Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir
sinensis, and A. astacus
concentration of amino acids is less than in marine decapods (Camien et al.,
1951) (mitten crab is an invasive species that lives in freshwater but migrates
seawards to breed).<
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molluscs, snails (Gastropoda) and mussels (Bivalvia), are an excellent food for
many species of freshwater fish and crustaceans. In rivers, lakes and
reservoirs, molluscs form powerful bottom placers and foulings that are
actively exploited by many cyprinid and other fish.
example, it is shown that bream, Abramis
brama, white bream,
Blicca bjoerkna, common roach, Rutilus rutilus, and carp, Cyprinus
carpio, can eat zebra mussel, Dreissena
polymorpha, of size ranged from 1-2 to 45 mm depending on fish age (Prejs et al., 1990; Nagelkerke
& Sibbing, 1996; Tucker et al., 1996). The real switch to zebra mussels would
be expected in fish of 23–24 cm length (Prejs et al., 1990). Other abundant
freshwater molluscs are Viviparus
viviparus, V. ater, V. contectus and
other viviparous snails. For example, newborn V. ater are eaten by barbel,
Barbus barbus, roach, R. rutilus, rudd, Scardinius erythrophtalmus and tench,
Tinca tinca (Keller & Ribi, 1993),
while adult viviparids (with the relatively hard shell and shell size up to 45
mm) are eaten by all large cyprinid fish with the well developed pharyngeal teeth.
proximate compositions and fatty acid profiles of the freshwater mussels Unio terminalis and Potamida littoralis are compared by
Ersoy & Şereflişan (2010). The crude protein (11,87-11,97 %), lipid
(2,55-1,05 %), ash (1,68–1,61%) and moisture (80,36-81,69 %) contents of U.
terminalis and P. littoralis are
observed. Lipid content in U. terminalis
is found to be significantly higher than in P. littoralis. The percentages of total
saturated fatty acids and total monounsaturated fatty acids are higher in U. terminalis
than in P. littoralis. At the same
time, the corresponding content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids is lower. The
n3-n6 ratio are 1,54-1,40 in U. terminalis and P.
littoralis, respectively. Using these data, Ersoy
& Şereflişan (2010) conclude that freshwater
mussels U. terminalis and P. littoralis are suitable as the healthy food.
Freshwater and Saltwater Molluscs
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acid content in three species of earthworms, cosmopolitan tiger worms, Eisenia foetida, African earthworms, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Indian blue
worms, Perionyx excavatus, are studied by Reinecke et al. (1991). Leucine and
arginine are most abundant among essential amino acids in all three species.
Crude protein content are 66,13 % in E.
foetida, 58,38 % in E. eugeniae,
61,63 % in P. excavatus and 61,00 %
in fishmeal, for comparison. The amino acid profile in four species of
earthworms namely E. eugeniae, Hyperiodrilus
africanus, Alma millsoni and Libyodrilus violaceus, in comparison with E. foetida, is studied by Dedeke et al. (2010). Arginine is most
abundant in four African species and one of the abundant essential amino acids (after
leucine and lysine) in E. foetida. Glutamic
and aspartic acids, among non-essential amino acids, are most
abundant than arginine and leucine in all five species, achieving 16,4 g per100g crude protein in E. foetida.
methionine, that are limited amino acids in most
feedstuffs, are present in all species of earthworms (Dedeke et al., 2010).
meal (Lumbricus rubellus) has become
one of the natural materials that can be used
as feed additive. The study of Istiqomah et al. (2009) is carried out (1) to evaluate the amino acid
profile of earthworm and earthworm meal, (2) to calculate the value of essential
amino acid index of both materials. It is shown that essential amino acid of
earthworm is dominated by histidine (0,63 % of dry matter basis), meanwhile the
earthworm meal is dominated by isoleucine (1,98 %). The non-essential amino
acid of earthworm and earthworm meal is dominated by glutamic acid (1,52 % and 3,60
% of dry matter basis, respectively). The value of essential amino acid index
obtained from earthworm meal is higher (58,67,%) than those from earthworm (21,23
%). It is concluded that powdering method of earthworm by using formic acid
addition has higher amino acid balance than earthworm.
to data by Istiqomah et
al. (2009) and other authors, earthworm meal of L. rubellus contains 65,63 %
crude protein, earthworm meal of L. terestris contains 32,60 % crude protein, earthworm meal of P. excavatus contains 57,20 % crude protein and have complete amino
acids. Dynes (2003) gives the similar results on crude protein in earthworm
meal of Eisenia andrei and E. foetida.
(E. foetida and L. rubellus) have been ensiled with sorghum and molasses in the
following proportions: 1) 60% earthworms, 40% sorghum; 2) 60% earthworms, 40%
sorghum, adjusting pH to 4,0 with HCl; 3) 60% earthworms, 20% sorghum, 20%
molasses; 4) 60% earthworms, 20% sorghum, 20% molasses, adjusting pH to 4,0
with HCl (Ortega Cerrilla et al., 1996). These four mixtures have been allowed
to ferment for 15 days at 18o C. No essential differences are in the
percentage of moisture, ether extract, crude fiber and crude protein for
treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, hence Ortega Cerrilla et al. (1996)
conclude that it is possible to preserve earthworms E. foetida and L. rubellus
by ensiling, adding carbohydrates like sorghum or molasses, and that an addition
of acids to have an adequate fermentation is optional.
vermicomposts contains cow, horse and other manure, agricultural waste, tree leaves
and other vegetable byproducts, processed by earthworms, together with the
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chemical composition of
two freshwater sludgeworms, Tubifex
tubifex and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri,
has been studied by Whitten & Goodnight (1982). These authors have found, in
particular, that L. hoffmeisteri
contain the significantly greater amount of lipid soluble material than T. tubifex. Graney et al. (1986) have
measured the concentrations of free amino acids in five species of freshwater
sludgeworms (L. hoffmeisteri, T. tubifex,
Potamothrix moldaviensis, P. vejdovskyi and Stylodrilus heringianus). Alanine, represented between 23,1 % and
41,8 % of the total free amino acid pool, has been found to be most abundant in
composition of T. tubifex is
determined by Saglio et al., (1990) in the context to study the attractiveness of amino acids to fish.. Basic
amino acids such as lysine (12,0 mg l−1), histidine (9,1 mg l−1) and arginine (8,1 mg
l−1) as well as non-polar amino acid such as alanine (11,7 mg l−1)
are most abundant in the crude tubifex extract (500 mg l−1).
According to Yanar
et al. (2003), the most
abundant amino acids (g per 100 g protein) in T. tubifex are lysine (6,54), leucine (6,52) and argenine (5,39). On
the crude protein content (% of dry matter), T. tubifex (58,68 %) is near to enchytraeid worms, Enchytraeus sp., and brine shrimp, Artemia salina, but lags behind cladocerans, such as Daphnia sp. and Moina sp., as well as copepods, such as Tigriopius japonicus and Acartia
clausi (from 70,09 % to 72,13 %). Total fatty acid content is 7.28 mg per 100 mg dry weight, ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids compose 18 % and 22 % of the
total, respectively (Yanar et al., 2003).
T. tubifex can be considered as the caratenoid source
with the total carotenoids measured at the level of 15,02 mg kg-1 (Yanar
et al., 2003). This
amount is close to the
value (about 40 mg kg-1)
needed in diet of fish to ensure their
pigmentation (e.g., Christansen
& Wallace, 1988; Choubert & Storebakken 1989).
to Saglio et al., (1990), the crude tubifex extract is significantly attractive
for common carp, Cyprinus carpio, in
the range of concentrations tested (5 mg l−1, 50 mg l−1,
500 mg l−1, 5 g l−1). Maximum attraction is obtained in
response to the extract with concentration of 500 mg l−1.
tests of the four chemical groups of amino acids show that acidic amino acids
(aspartic and glutamic) do not produce significant activity in carp. Basic
amino acids (lysine, histidine and arginine) as well as polar, uncharged amino
acids (glycine, serine, threonine, tyrosine, asparagine and glutamine) are
ineffective as attractants but significantly increase exploratory behaviour in
carp. Non-polar amino acids (alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine,
phenylalanine and methionine) show significant effects on both attraction and
al., (1990) have found that combination of alanine, valine and glycine acts
similar to the crude tubifex extract. To match the dose of 500 mg l−1 of the crude
tubifex extract, concentrations of alanine, valine and glycine are 1,3 x 10-7 mol l−1, 5,7 x 10-8 mol l−1 and 5,0 x 10-8 mol l−1, respectively.
camparison, an extract of pupa silkworm, Bombyx
mori, contains more acidic amino acids (27,1%) (Tsushima & Ina, 1978)
than an extract of sludgeworms (10,9%). According to experimental findings by
Kasumyan & Morsi (1996), asparttic and glutamic acids are attractive (after cysteine and proline) for C. carpio as gustatory stimulants.
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