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Aquatic predators are attracted by alarm pheromones

Northern pike, Esox lucius, are attracted by alarm pheromone of fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, deposited normally in the undamaged fish skin (Mathis et al., 1995; Chivers et al., 1996; undirect data by Wisenden & Thiel, 2001). According to Mathis et al. (1995), pike are also attracted by an artificial hypoxanthin-3(N)-oxyde identified as an active component of the Ostariophysi alarm pheromones.

In addition to pike in the winter experiments (Wisenden & Thiel, 2001), other predatory fish active in cold season such as walleye, Stizostedion vitreum, largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens, might be attracted by the skin extract of fathead minnow, P. promelas. Other potential predators in the experimental locality (Wisenden & Thiel, 2001) such as black bullhead catfish, Ameiurus melas, brown bullhead, A. nebulosus, and yellow bullhead, A. natalis, are inactive in the winter season.

It is shown directly that piscivorous (adult) largemouth bass, M. salmoides, are attracted by alarm pheromone of finescale dace, Phoxinus neogaeus (Brown et al., 2001). Likewise, adult yellow perch, P. flavescens, are attracted by conspecific alarm pheromone (Hurvey & Brown, 2004) while juvenile (planktivorous) bass and perch demonstrate anti-predator behaviour to the same cue.

According to Mathis et al. (1995), skin extract of fathead minnow, P. promelas, attracts also 6 species of predaceous diving beetles (Dytiscidae) like Colymbetes sculptilis and more.

Basic References

Brown G.E., LeBlanc V.J., Porter L.E. 2001. Ontogenetic changes in the response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides, Centrarchidae, Perciformes) to heterospecific alarm pheromones. Ethology 107, 401-414

Chivers D.P., Brown G.E., Smith R.J.F. 1996. The evolution of chemical alarm signals: attracting predators benefits alarm signal senders. The American Naturalist 148, 649-659

Harvey M.C., Brown G.E. 2004. Dine or dash?: Ontogenetic shift in the response of yellow perch to conspecific alarm cues. Environmental Biology of Fishes 70, 345-352

Mathis A., Chivers D.P., Smith R.J.F. 1995. Chemical alarm signals: predator detterents or predator attractants? American Naturalist 145, 994-1005

Wisenden B.D., Thiel T.A. 2001. Field verification of predator attraction to minnow alarm substance. Journal of Chemical Ecology 28, 417-422

Category: Attractants | Views: 1311 | Added by: nickyurchenko | Rating: 0.0/0





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