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In 1986, Kasymyan & Ponomarev have published the results of their behavioural experiments with several tens of zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio, divided into two training groups. In training Group 1, fish were fed (from birth to 3 month age) planktonic Cladocera and bloodworms (Chironomus plumosus), in Group 2  Cladocera and sludge worms (Tubifex tubifex).


Then fish were moved into an experimental aquarium, where they had the possibility to select one of two sections: with water extract of bloodworms and, respectively, with water extract of sludge worms (under concentration of these extracts 10-2 – 10-3 g/l). According to Kasumyan & Ponomarev (1986), fish of the first group preferred (displaying search feeding behaviour) an aquarium section with the Chironomus plumosus odor, and vise versa — fish of the second group preferred another section, with the Tubifex tubifex odor.

In other words, training fish preferred the familiar feeding odors.

In general and applied ethology, this phenomenon is considered in the terms of an acquired search image. An acquired search image forms in the long-term memory of an animal during its learning (both in the nature or laboratory) and is used further as an etalon (template, specimen) to collate the receiving perceptual information. In our case, an acquired chemical search image forms in respect of an odor of some object.

How chemical search images form in other fish and crustaceans,  study the basic references given below.

Basic References

Atema J., Holland K., Ikehara W. 1980. Olfactory responses of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) to prey odors: chemical search image. Journal of Chemical Ecology 6, 457-465

Brown G.E., Smith R.J.F. 1994. Fathead minnows use chemical cues to discriminate shoalmates from unfamiliar conspecifics. Journal of Chemical Ecology 20, 3051-3061

Connaughton V.P., Epifanio C.E. 1993. The influence of previous experience on the feeding habits of larval weakfish (Cynoscion regalis). ... Read more »

Category: Ethology | Views: 798 | Added by: nickyurchenko | Date: 2012-07-15


People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is the largest animal rights organization in the world, with more than 3 million members and supporters.

PETA focuses its attention on the four areas in which the largest numbers of animals suffer the most intensely for the longest periods of time: on factory farms, in the clothing trade, in laboratories, and in the entertainment industry.

In addition, PETA works actively on many other issues, including the cruel killing of beavers, birds, and other "pests" as well as cruelty to the domesticated animals.




Category: Currents | Views: 619 | Added by: nickyurchenko | Date: 2012-07-12

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