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Microsmatic fish are represented by numerous freshwater and marine species in which the well developed visual system provides most of the behavioural responses in comparison with the less developed chemosensory system. Visually guided diurnal or twilight predators as well as visually guided bentivorous and planktivorous species form this group of fish. The chemosensory system of microsmatic fish is active in providing their reproductive behaviour, social behaviour, spatial migration, partially anti-predator behaviour and is weak or indifferent in providing feeding responses.

Here, we consider esociform fish.

Esocidae

5 species: Esox americanus, E. lucius, E. masquinongy, E. niger, E. reicherti

Fresh waters of boreal Eurasia and Northern America

Northern pike, E. lucius, and other representatives of Esox genus, including Amur pike, E. reicherti, and some North American species, are apexpredators with the well developed vision and lateral line system.

According to data received by Devitsyna & Malyukina (1977) in the electrophysiological experiments, the olfactory system of pike, E. lucius, responds only to conspecific sexual pheromones (gonad extracts), but does not respond to conspecific odors, pure water and feeding substances like fish blood or tissue extracts. In feeding behaviour, musky, E. masquinongy, use vision and seismosensory system (New et al., 2001).

Pike larvae decrease the frequency of their attacks on zooplankters and show other anti-predator responses to chemical cues of Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis (Lehtiniemi, 2005; Lehtiniemi et al., 2005). It is also shown that pike are attracted by alarm pheromone of fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas (Mathis et al., 1995; Chivers et al., 1996; indirect data by Wisenden & Thiel, 2001).

Dalliidae

3 species: Dallia admirabilis, D. delicatissima, D. pectoralis

Fresh waters of Bering Sea basin

Blackfish primarily feed on crustacens (ostracods, cladocerans, copepods) and insect larvae (ephemeropterans, hemipterans, dipterans, odonates), with the occasional cannibalism and consumption of juvenile pike, E. lucius (Chlupach 1975).

However, leading sensory systems in feeding and reproductive behaviours of blackfish are unknown.

In winter with the oxygen lack, blackfish concentrate in the vicinity of holes in the ice, being easy to capture with the simple funnel-shaped traps made from strips of tamarack or spruce (Andersen et al., 2004). In spring and fall, blackfish are also easily caught while migrating to and from their summer habitats by placing the traps in narrow channels, it is appear these traps are not baited.

Umbridae

4 species: Novumbra hubbsi and Umbra krameri, U. limi, U. pygmaea

Fresh waters of Europe and Northern America

According to rare observations, feeding behaviour of mudminnows is rather provided by vision. For example, European mudminnow, U. krameri, eat in an aquarium only living and moving invertebrates such as cladocerans, copepods, Chaoborus larvae, chironomid larvae, culicid larvae, mayflay larvae, Acellus aquaticus and tubificid worms (Kováč, 1997). Cannibalism and hunting on juvenile fish in the nature are occasionally observed. However, Glasgow & Hallock (2009) report that Olimpic mudminnows, Novumbra hubbsi, are caught by the minnow traps baited with the chironomid larvae baits (15 g of chironomid larvae per one funnel-shaped trap). So, the problem of sensory providing of feeding behaviour in mudminnows is currently unclear.

On the other hand, chemical cues may play an important role in social and anti-predator behaviours of mudminnows. Indeed, central mudminnows, U. limi, demonstrate anti-predator behaviour in response to conspecific chemical alarm cues (Wisenden et al., 2007). Yet, mudminnows display comlex reproductive behaviour, from territory guarding to parental care (Hagen et al., 1972; Bohlen, 1995; Kováč, 199 ... Read more »

Category: Olfaction & Gustation | Views: 1042 | Added by: nickyurchenko | Date: 2013-06-22

The effectiveness of betaine as gustatory feeding stimulant for freshwater and marine fish is intensively studing. Kasumyan & Døving (2003) have reviewed basic articles published in this area before 2003 year. As shown, betaine is effective as gustatory feeding stimulant for some fish and is ineffective for others.

Non-reviewed articles and articles published after 2003 year confirm the foregoing conclusion.

According to Barnard (2006), betaine hydrohloride introduced into the dough is attractive for Japanese koi carp, Cyprinus carpio, at the optimal concentration of 15,66 ppm.

Gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, fed the fish meal diets display the higher intake than those fed the diets with part of meat and bone meal (MBM), but the difference is significant only in tests on betaine, glycine and methionine (Xue & Cui, 2001). None of the feeding stimulants tested, namely betaine, amino acids and commercial squid extract, show feeding enhancing effects in fish meal diets. All feeding stimulants show feeding enhancing effects in MBM diets, with the optimal inclusion level of 0,1 % for squid extract and 0,5 % for betaine. According to data obtained by Xue & Cui (2001), squid extract tends to have the strongest effect, amino acids (0,1 % for glycine) occupy the middle position, while betaine tends to have the weakest feeding enhancing effect for gibel carp, C. auratus gibelio.

Venkateshwarlu et al. (2009) have studied 10 herbal attractants for post larvae of freshwater giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) as well as for fingerlings of Indian major carps, catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigala (Cirrhinus mrigala). The powdered herbal materials have been inroduced into starch at the 1 % level to make the dough. It is revealed that post larvae of giant prawn are attracted in greater numbers towards ekangi, Kaempferia galanga (Zingiberaceae), kakla, Piper cubeba (Piperaceae), and bhuski (seeds) in comparison with betaine. As for fish, the highest attractant activities are shown by latkhandhana, Bixa orellana (Bixaceae) on catla, kakla on rohu, and kharbaz (fruits) on mrigala, also with the less attractivity of betaine (Venkateshwarlu et al., 2009).

Basic References

Barnard P. 2006. The effect of betaine hydrochloride concentrations on chemo-attraction in Japanese koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). In: Gustatory and olfactory feeding responces in Japanese koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch (South Africa), 45-51

Kasumyan A.O., Døving K.B. 2003. Taste preferences in fishes. Fish and Fisheries 4, 289-347

Venkateshwarlu G., Muralidhar A.P., Rathod R., Pal A.K. 2009. Plants traditionally used in fish harvest & angling potential feed attractants in aquaculture. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 8, 539-542

Xue M., Cui Y. 2001. Effect of several feeding stimulants on diet preference by juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), fed diets with or without partial replacement of fish meal by meat and bone meal. Aquaculture 198, 281-292

Category: Olfaction & Gustation | Views: 2317 | Added by: nickyurchenko | Date: 2013-06-18

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