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The effectiveness of betaine as gustatory feeding stimulant for freshwater and marine fish is intensively studing. Kasumyan & Døving (2003) have reviewed basic articles published in this area before 2003 year. As shown, betaine is effective as gustatory feeding stimulant for some fish and is ineffective for others.

Non-reviewed articles and articles published after 2003 year confirm the foregoing conclusion.

According to Barnard (2006), betaine hydrohloride introduced into the dough is attractive for Japanese koi carp, Cyprinus carpio, at the optimal concentration of 15,66 ppm.

Gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, fed the fish meal diets display the higher intake than those fed the diets with part of meat and bone meal (MBM), but the difference is significant only in tests on betaine, glycine and methionine (Xue & Cui, 2001). None of the feeding stimulants tested, namely betaine, amino acids and commercial squid extract, show feeding enhancing effects in fish meal diets. All feeding stimulants show feeding enhancing effects in MBM diets, with the optimal inclusion level of 0,1 % for squid extract and 0,5 % for betaine. According to data obtained by Xue & Cui (2001), squid extract tends to have the strongest effect, amino acids (0,1 % for glycine) occupy the middle position, while betaine tends to have the weakest feeding enhancing effect for gibel carp, C. auratus gibelio.

Venkateshwarlu et al. (2009) have studied 10 herbal attractants for post larvae of freshwater giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) as well as for fingerlings of Indian major carps, catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigala (Cirrhinus mrigala). The powdered herbal materials have been inroduced into starch at the 1 % level to make the dough. It is revealed that post larvae of giant prawn are attracted in greater numbers towards ekangi, Kaempferia galanga (Zingiberaceae), kakla, Piper cubeba (Piperaceae), and bhuski (seeds) in comparison with betaine. As for fish, the highest attractant activities are shown by latkhandhana, Bixa orellana (Bixaceae) on catla, kakla on rohu, and kharbaz (fruits) on mrigala, also with the less attractivity of betaine (Venkateshwarlu et al., 2009).

Basic References

Barnard P. 2006. The effect of betaine hydrochloride concentrations on chemo-attraction in Japanese koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). In: Gustatory and olfactory feeding responces in Japanese koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch (South Africa), 45-51

Kasumyan A.O., Døving K.B. 2003. Taste preferences in fishes. Fish and Fisheries 4, 289-347

Venkateshwarlu G., Muralidhar A.P., Rathod R., Pal A.K. 2009. Plants traditionally used in fish harvest & angling potential feed attractants in aquaculture. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 8, 539-542

Xue M., Cui Y. 2001. Effect of several feeding stimulants on diet preference by juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), fed diets with or without partial replacement of fish meal by meat and bone meal. Aquaculture 198, 281-292

Category: Olfaction & Gustation | Views: 2819 | Added by: nickyurchenko | Date: 2013-06-18

Two groups of juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella have been raised within 6 months on animal and vegetable foods (Kasumyan & Morsi, 1997). Carps conditionally named carnivorous have been grown on Chironomidae larvae, carps named vegetarian  on duckweed and Romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa) leaves, respectively. After conditioning, carnivorous carps show preferences for agar-agar pellets with the Chironomidae larvae extract (75 g w.w. per 1 liter), vegetarian carps  to pellets with the lettuce extract (75 g w.w.). According to Kasumyan & Morsi (1997), carps of both groups do not change specific preferences for individual 21 amino acids and 4 classical taste substances tested.

Generally, gustatory search images form in the memory of fish relatively quickly. In common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Ivlev, 1977), fairly stable visual and gustatory search images in respect of Chironomidae larvae and other natural foods form within 1-2 weeks.

Basic References

Ivlev V.S. 1977. Experimental ecology of the feeding of fishes. Nukova Dumka Publishers, Kyiv

Kasumyan A.O., Morsi A.M.K. 1997. Taste preferences of classical taste substances by juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae, Pisces), raised on animal and vegetate foods. Proceedings of the Russian Academy of Sciences 357, 284-286

Category: Olfaction & Gustation | Views: 549 | Added by: nickyurchenko | Date: 2013-06-17



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