In 1986, Kasymyan & Ponomarev have published the results of their behavioural experiments with several tens of zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio, divided into two
training groups. In training Group 1, fish were fed (from birth to 3 month age) planktonic Cladocera and bloodworms (Chironomus plumosus), in Group 2 Cladocera and sludge worms (Tubifex tubifex).
Then fish were moved into an experimental aquarium, where they had the possibility to select one of two sections: with water extract of bloodworms and, respectively, with water extract of sludge worms (under concentration of these extracts 10-2
– 10-3 g/l). According to Kasumyan & Ponomarev (1986), fish of the first group preferred (displaying search feeding behaviour) an aquarium section with the Chironomus plumosus odor, and vise versa — fish of the second group preferred another section, with the Tubifex tubifex odor.
In other words, training fish preferred the familiar feeding odors.
In general and applied ethology, this phenomenon is considered in the terms of an acquired search image. An acquired search image forms in the long-term memory of an animal during its learning (both in the nature or laboratory) and is used
further as an etalon (template, specimen) to collate the receiving perceptual information. In our case, an acquired chemical search image forms in respect of an odor of some object.
How chemical search images form in other fish and crustaceans, study the basic references given below.
Atema J., Holland K., Ikehara W. 1980. Olfactory responses of yellowfin
tuna (Thunnus albacares) to prey odors: chemical search image. Journal of Chemical Ecology 6, 457-465
Smith R.J.F. 1994. Fathead minnows use chemical cues to discriminate shoalmates
from unfamiliar conspecifics. Journal of
Chemical Ecology 20, 3051-3061
Connaughton V.P., Epifanio C.E. 1993. The influence
of previous experience on the feeding habits of larval weakfish (Cynoscion
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Derby C.D., Atema J. 1981. Selective improvement in responses
to prey odors by the lobster, Homarus americanus, following feeding experience.
Journal of Chemical Ecology 7,
B.A. 1994. Crayfish feeding responses to zebra mussels depend on microorganisms
and learning. Journal of Chemical Ecology
Hsiao S.C., Tester A. L.1955. Reaction of
tuna to stimuli, 1952-1953. Part II. Response of tuna to
visual and visual-chemical stimuli. United
States Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, Special Scientific
Report: Fisheries 130, 63-76
Kasumyan A.O., Ponomarev V.Y. 1986. Study of the behaviour of
zebrafish Brachydanio rerio Hamilton-Buchanan under the influence of natural chemical food signals. Journal of Ichthyology 26, 665-673
McBride J.R., Idler D.R., Jonas R.E.E.,
Tomlinson N. 1962. Olfactory perception in juvenile salmon. I. Observations on
response of juvenile sockeye to extracts of foods. Journal of the Fisheries
Research Board of Canada
Ristvey A., Rebach S. 1999. Enhancement
of the response of rock crabs, Cancer
irroratus, to prey
odors following feeding experiments. Biological
Bulletin 197, 361-367
Thacker R.W. 1996. Food choices of land hermit
crabs (Coenobita compressus H. Milne Edwards) depend on past
experience. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 199,
Tester A. L., van Weel P.B., Naughton
J.J. 1955. Reaction of tuna to stimuli, 1952-1953. Part I. Response of tuna to chemical
stimuli. United States Department of the
Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, Special Scientific Report: Fisheries
Uiblein F. 1993. Expectancy
controlled sampling decisions in Vimba
elongata. Environmental Biology of
Fish 33, 311-316